In most European countries, graphology is an approved science and is taught in universities within the frames of psychology, medicine and forensics courses.
Moreover, European graphologists found unions setting up professional standards, organising conferences, seminars, lectures and teaching courses. Graphology experts are needed in the areas of recruitment, education, psychological consultations.
If you want to know about graphology in the UK andFrance, please read separate materials, because this article is about Germany, Italy and the Netherlands.
Graphology («handwriting psychology») has been taught to students of philosophy, psychology, medicine and forensics in Germany for 80 years For example, professor Robert Heiss, one of the most prominent graphologists in the country, used to be a chairman of the Psychology and Philosophy School in the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg for 30 years (from 1943 to 1973). He taught a mandatory for all psychology students two year module in graphology.
Heiss worked with such well-known psychologists as Bender, Szondi, Luscher (inventors of psychological tests named after them), Solliger (one of developers of the Rorschach test).
Graphology is taught in the University of Hamburg, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Leipzig University and other popular unis in Germany. Graphology was in one of the first sections to include into the Association of Psychologists of Germany (bdp-verband.org) when it was founded in 1946.
In Italy, like in Germany, graphology was approved by the ministry of education, and graphology courses are taught to students of sociology, psychology, forensics, etc.
In 1997, a three year course of graphology was open in the LUMSA University in Rome (lumsa.it) and the University of Urbino «Carlo Bo» (uniurb.it). Since 2004, there are also Master’s programmes in medico-legal, educational, family graphology and graphology consultation.
Graphologists in Italy closely work with psychologists, physiologists, HR managers. There are regular joint conferences and congresses.
The Dutch union of graphologists (grafologie.net) was founded in 1929, and nowadays the organisation deals with setting standards of graphology in the country, organises courses and exams, which enable the newly qualified handwriting analysts to legally begin their practice.